In this book, we have listed more than 500 nuclear structure diagrams, including all the stable nuclides and covering all 118 elements of the periodic table.
This is a summary of the nuclear structure in this book:
- Neutrons and protons act as unit cube to form cubic nucleus.
- Inside the nucleus, the proton can be only located on the nucleus surface.
- Inside the nucleus, most neutrons form the kernel of the nucleus, which is called the kernel neutron. Some neutrons may be located on the nucleus surface, which is called the surface neutron.
- Inside the nucleus, the spin of the neutron and proton has only two options, up or down.
- The nucleus has a layered structure, the layer perpendicular to their spin direction.
- Inside the nucleus, when the number of the kernel neutron is greater than 18 the center cubic unit of the nucleus will be empty, then the layer with the empty cube unit is called hollow layer, and all the other layers are called solid layers.
- From the first to the third element period, the proton is located only at the top and bottom of the nucleus. From the fourth period, the proton starts to distribute on the four side of the cube nucleus (front and back, left and right)
- At the top or bottom of the nucleus, except one center proton, all the protons have the same spin direction; the spin of the center proton can be either up or down.
- Except the center proton, the spin of top layer proton is always contrary to the spin of bottom layer proton.
- On the four side of the nucleus (not include the top and bottom), all protons have the same spin direction
- Inside the nucleus, on the hollow layer, except of innermost or outermost neutron, all the neutrons have the same spin direction, the spin of the innermost or outermost neutrons can be either up or down.
- Inside the nuclide, on the solid layer, except the one center nucleon, all other neutrons have the same spin direction; the spin of the center nucleon can be either up or down.